Alto Andino Nature Tours
Putre, Chile

Botanical resources for the central Andes 

and elsewhere

Andean Desert Garden & Village Life Blog                   
Wildflowers & Native Plants:   guiding 

Samplers:  Northern Chile wildflowers

Extreme alpines in Lauca National Park   
Parinacota Province pre-puna flora    
Parque Nacional Lauca bog wildflowers
One arroyo in the Atacama Desert 
Blooming "winter" wildflowers June-August 09
Malesherbia auristipulata
 Malesherbia auristipulata Ricardi
©  B. Knapton

Mostly Alpine Plants

Flores de Alta Montaña de los Andes Patagonicos   High Mountain Flowers of the Patagonia Andes.  Marcela Ferreyra, Cecilia Ezcurra, Sonia Clayton.  2006.  In English and Spanish,  239pp.  color photos. Descriptions of 170 species of plants, maps.  Editorial LOLA

Land Above the Trees: a guide to American Alpine Tundra,  4th edition.  Ann Zwinger and Beatrice Willard, 1996. ISBN 1-55566-171-8.  Alpine habitats beyond the field guide: alpine tundra, plant and animal adaptations, alpine heath, alpine marsh, talus and scree slopes, fellfields, snowbed communities, etc.

Plantas Altoandinas en la Flora Silvestre de Chile.  A. Hoffman, MK Arroyo, F. Liberona, M. Muñoz, J. Watson.  1998.  ISBN 956-7743-00-2  280 pp.  Illustrated with color drawings, covers from about 28 to 41 S latitude,  from about Copiapo to Osorno, high Andes habitats.

Alpine Plant Life:  Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems, C. Korner.  1999.  ISBN 3-540-65438-0     The textbook for alpine plant ecology.

Páramos: a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature:  James Luteyn, 1999.   ISBN 0-89327-427-5  Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Vol 84. 

Alpine Plants of North America  Graham Nicholls  ISBN 0-88192-548-9  An Encyclopedia of Mountain Wildflowers from the Rockies to Alaska.  Timber Press

El Altiplano:  Ciencia y conciencia en los Andes.  Actas del II Simposiuo Internacional de Estudios Altoplánicos 19-21 de Octubre de 1993, Arica Chile.  1997.  Universidad de Chile.

Kosciuszko Alpine Flora   (Australian Alps)   Definitely on the list of dream trips

Wildflowers of Unalaska Island:  A Guide to the Flowering Plants of an Aleutian Island.  Suzi Golodoff, 2003.  ISBN I-889963-18-6  University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks Alaska

Wildflowers of Denali National Park and Interior Alaska.  Verna E Pratt, Frank G Pratt.  1993.  ISBN 0-9623192-2-8, Alaskakrafts Inc, Anchorage Alaska

Wildflowers and other Plant Life of the Kodiak Archipelago:  A Field Guide for the Flora of Kodiak and Southcentral Alaska 2010   ISBN 978-1-57833-479-9   Stacy Studebaker.     Sense of Place Press, Kodiak Alaska

Rocky Mountain Wildflowers.
  1963.  Frank C Craighead, Jr and Roy J Davis.  ISBN  0-395-07578-5  Peterson Field Guide, Houghton Mifflin Company

Flora Nativa de valor Ornamental:  Chile  Zona Cordillera de Los Andes.  2008.  Paulina Riedemann, Gustavo Aldunate, Sebastian Teillier   ISBN 978-956-299-432-3  Comes with 2 parts, one a guide to trails and routes. 

Resources from Museums, Herbarios, Libraries, Seed Banks, 
Taxonomy sites, online courses

Millenium Seed Bank Project  Kew.  About the Chile project.    Ex situ Conservation of Endemic, Endangered and Vulnerable Plant Species from the Arid Lands of Chile       "The plant hunter:  Follow ecologist Michael Way across Chile as he searches for rare and threatened plant species for Kew Garden's Millennium Seed Bank, in a bid to safeguard them for future generations, before it's too late."  BBC Video     Conservación ex situ de especies endémicas y amenazadas de las zonas desértica y mediterránea de Chile  Banco Base de Semillas, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Chile    Boletín de la Red de Recolectores de Semillas Nativas

Manual de Recolleción de semillas de plantas silvestres  Boletin INIA  #110.  ISSN 0717-4829.  How to collect seeds from wild plants.  PDF

Neotropical Live Plant Photos
   Another useful site from The Field Museum.  "La mejor manera de aprender a reconocer plantas tropicales puede ser por medio de caminatas en el campo con un botánico que tenga muchos conocimientos. Varias veces. Como esto es raramente posible en los Neotrópicos (las zonas tropicales de las Américas), nosotros estamos buscando otras maneras de poder ayudar."

a journal of botanical nomenclature from the Missouri Botanical Garden.  Vol 1-18 available on Biodiversity Heritage Library site. 

New digital resources from the Field Museum
.   V-Types           
Berlin Negatives:  "In 1929, J. Francis Macbride of the Botany Department of The Field Museum traveled to Europe to photograph type specimens of tropical American plants preserved in European herberia.  He visited all the major herbaria and his efforts resulted in photographs of over 40,000 types and other historically important specimens.  Of these, 15,000 negatives from the Berlin-Dahlem have been scanned at high resolution."  Fieldiana Botany Online:  "Fieldiana es una publicación monográfica seriada y arbitrada, editada por el The Field Museum con énfasis en monografías y artículos científicos relacionados a sus colecciones e investigación........El catálogo completo de Fieldiana está ahora disponible en formato digital a través del proyecto "Biodiversity Heritage Library...."  

The International Plant Names Index. 

Tour the Latin American Plant Gallery   Missouri Botanical Garden

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion 
Flora de Conosur  Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares.

sciELO Scientific Electronic Library.  Online academic journals from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, España, Mexico, Portugal, Venezuela, with others in development.  These are free downloads of scientific publications, not tied to USA or European document service outfits which require payments upwards of $35 just to see one PDF.   Another source for academic journals relating to botany is "Electronic Sites of Leading Botany, Plant Biology and Science Journals" which lists hundreds of journals,
some of the journals do have online access to their archives, most don't.  

2,052 new species of vascular plants 
See page 5.  SOS 2009 State of Observed Species:  A Report Card on our knowledge of the Earth's Species.

Botanicus  MBG Rare Books online:
  Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis     Hippolyto Ruiz, et Josepho Pavon. Tomus I-III 

The Biodiversity Heritage Library:
Flora de Chile by Cárlos Reiche online.  Flora of Peru  Macbride et al  online.   Hard to believe but it's all there for download.

Angiosperm Phylogeny website:  "The focus of this site is on angiosperm families, although treatments of gymnosperm groups were added in 2005. Emphasis is placed on plant families because they are the groups - admittedly partly arbitrary as to circumscription, but now for the most part monophyletic - around which many of us organize our understanding of plant diversity. I also pay attention to groupings of families because much progress has been made in the last decade in particular in sorting them out. Infrafamilial groups in families like Poaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae and Ericaceae are being added as studies become available. In larger families I tend to focus on literature that deals with clades with fifty or more taxa, in smaller families the coverage is more detailed."

Online course in systematic botany, Texas A&M University Lectures, lab notes, not restricted to North American flora. 

Plant Taxonomy course online:  lecture notes, lab guidelines, quizzes.  Material from Stephen G. Saupe, Ph.D.; Biology Department, College of St. Benedict/St. John's University, Collegeville, Minnesota. 

Chihuahuan Desert Natural History Course. "A course introducing the natural history of the Chihuahuan Desert, designed to be either a self-learning course or as the basic outline for a formally taught course."

Andean Botanical Information System
(ABIS) presents information from floristic and systematic investigations of the flowering plants (phanerogams) of Andean South America.

Mostly Chile

Guía de Campo:  Plantas Trepadoras, Epífitas y Parásitas Nativas de Chile    Alicia Marticorena, Diego Alarcón, Lucía Abello y Cristian Atala    2010     Online free as PDF publication.  

Libreta Botánica Observaciones botánicas no publicadas, hallazgos, teoría, propuestas, escritos sobre especiación, diversidad vegetal, rareza, grados de amenaza, extinción.

Guía de Campo Helechos Nativos del Centro y Sur de Chile   Roberto Rodríguez, Diego Alarcón y Jaime Espejo  2009.   Free online PDF publication.  

Revista Chilena de Historia Natural,
Publicación de la Sociedad de Biología de Chile
lant Geography of Chile (Plant and Vegetation)  Andres Moreira-Munoz, 2011.   ISBN-10: 9048187478  From Amazon webpage  "The first and so far only Plant Geography of Chile was written about 100 years ago, since when many things have changed: plants have been renamed and reclassified; taxonomy and systematics have experienced deep changes as have biology, geography, and biogeography. The time is therefore ripe for a new look at Chile’s plants and their distribution. Focusing on three key issues – botany/systematics, geography and biogeographical analysis – this book presents a thoroughly updated synthesis both of Chilean plant geography and of the different approaches to studying it. Because of its range – from the neotropics to the temperate sub-Antarctic – Chile’s flora provides a critical insight into evolutionary patterns, particularly in relation to the distribution along the latitudinal profiles and the global geographical relationships of the country’s genera. The consequences of these relations for the evolution of the Chilean Flora are discussed. This book will provide a valuable resource for both graduate students and researchers in botany, plant taxonomy and systematics, biogeography, evolutionary biology and plant conservation.  Springer.  Also available in PDF as a dissertation.   Plant Geography of Chile: An Essay on Postmodern Biogeography 

Gayana Botanica     "La revista Gayana Botanica, dedicada al naturalista francés Claudio Gay (1800-1873), es el órgano oficial de Ediciones de la Universidad de Concepción, Chile, para la publicación de resultados de investigaciones originales en las áreas de la botánica."  Articles online starting with Vol 57. 2000.

Rhodora   Journal of the New England Botanical Club.  Vol 1 (1899) through vol.  106 (2004) online.  

Cactus del Extremo Norte de Chile   Raquel Pinto & Arturo Kirberg, 2009

Tillandsia del Norte de Chile y del Extremo Sur de Perú
.   Raquel Pinto.  2005.  ISBN: 956-299-730-8.   

Oasis de Niebla: El Niño 1997 by Raquel Pinto. 1999. 

Andean Desert Garden & Village Life Blog

Fenómeno del "desierto florido"
se presenta en el Norte Chico:  Desde septiembre a noviembre se presenta florecimiento de especies debido al aumento de lluvias en la zona.
por Pablo Portilla y Oriana Fernández - 23/09/2009

Stromatolites in Chile's extreme north (!)   1 Parte         2 Parte       3 Parte

Facebook group Flores Silvestres de Chile

Guía de Campo de las Orquídeas Chilenas
  Novoa, P., J. Espejo, M. Cisternas, M. Rubio & E. Domínguez.  PDF

Guía de las Orquídeas de la Quinta Región Agosto 2009.  Sergio Elórtegui y Patricio Novoa.  

Recetario Gourmet de Quínoa  (Quinoa recipe book).    High protein seeds commonly used on the altiplano of Chile and Bolivia.   Manual de Cultivación para la Producción de Quínoa en la Región Semiarido en Chile.    Quínoa video in Spanish

Manual de plantas y canciones Aymara
   Divulgación de la sabiduría ancestral sobre plantas nativas del altiplano de Arica, Chile.

Etnobotania y etno musicología Aymara

Chile Bosque
proyecto dedicado a difundir, conocer y disfrutar de la diversa flora nativa de Chile.  

Plantas Amenazadas del
Centro-Sur de Chile Distribución, Conservación y Propagación     PDF

Muestras Neotropicales de Herbario
(sorted for Chile specimens)

Monumento Natural Quebrada de Cardones    A new natural monument for Arica:  Quebrada de Cardones, primer área silvestre protegida de Arica.  And read more about the natural monument from the CONAF site. More from El Mercurio.  

Jardín Botánico del Desierto
   Atacama Desert un bréve descripción,  Benito Gómez Silva, Instituto del Desierto, Universidad de Antofagasta.

Cactaceas en la flora silvestre de Chile
.  Segunda Edicion.  AE Hoffman J. and HE Walter M.  Illustrations by Andrés Jullián    2004.  ISBN  956-7743-05-3.

Flora and vegetation of Pan de Azucar National Park in Chile    Rundel et al   PDF

Flores del Desierto de Chile   Wildflowers of the Chilean Desert   Sebastian Teillier A, Herman Zepeda F, Patricia Garcia V.  1998  ISBN  956-7173-22-2  Useful for the species in the Atacama Desert south of Antofagasto.

Hongos de Chile: Atlas Micologico
, Waldo Lazo, Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Chile.  2001.  ISBN 956-19-0337-7.  Chile's mushrooms and fungi.

Flora de los Andes de Coquimbo:  Cordillera de Doña Ana
. F. Squeo, R. Osorio, G. Arancio. 1994.  ISBN956-7393-01-X.   For species above about 3,000 masl, at about 26-32º S latitude in Chile. 

Historia Natural del Parque Nacional Bosque Fray Jorge  Editores: Francisco A. Squeo, Julio R. Gutiérrez & Iván R. Hernández  PDF 

El Pequeño Entomólogo   Universidad de La Serena, Proyecto Explora

Flora of Chile Project

Classification, diversity and distribution of Chilean Asteraceae:  implications for biogeography and conservation  por Moriera-Muñoz and Muñoz-Schick  

Arboles Nativos de Chile

Libro Rojo de la Flora Nativa y de los Sitios Prioritarios para su conservación:  Regiòn de Coquimbo.  F. Squeo, G. Arancio, J.R. Guttièrrezditores.   2001.  ISBN 956-7393-12-2.   In Spanish. Ediciones Universidad de La Serena.  PDF

Plantas medicinales silvestres de uso tradicional en la localidad de Paposo, Costa del Desierto de Atacama, II Región, Chile
,  Guido Gutierrez G.and Leonel Lazo Salinas.  1996.  May be out of print now. 

Flora Nativa de valor ornamental, identificacion y propagacion
  (Central Chile) 
by Paulina Riedemann and Gustavo Aldunate, 2001.  ISBN 956-13-1737-0.  Flora Nativa de valor ornamental, identificacion y propagacion  (Northern Chile coastal) Paulina Riedemann, Gustavo Aldunate and Sebastián Teillier.  2006.  ISBN 956-299-432-5.   Both can be ordered from Corporación Parque y Centro Cultural Botánico Chagual.  Vitacura, Santiago, Chile. email: 

Le Jardin Botanique Alpin du Lautaret: 
the results of their botanical expedition to Chile.  Many photos of Chilean wildflowers, list by families

Flora de la cuenca de Santiago de Chile  por Luisa Eugenia Navas Bustamante   PDF  

Arch. Juan Fernández--Isla Robinson Crusoe-Native Plants vs Introduced    
PDF of Poster

Chloris Chilensis, Revista Chilena de Flora y Vegetación.  Online refereed journal.  New issue.  
Lomas Formations of the Atacama Desert, part of the Smithsonian Institution Project Centres of Plant Diversity The rationale for the project is the concern about the rapid global loss and degradation of natural ecosystems and the urgent need to highlight areas of pristine botanical importance.

Central Andean dry puna (NT1001)
  Also check out Atacama desert (NT1303), in the same series.  Be sure to click the link to  the "scientific report" (at the bottom of their page) as the preliminary paragraphs presented are sketchy. 

Plantas Altoandinas en la Flora Silvestre de Chile
  A. Hoffman, MK Arroyo, F. Liberona, M. Muñoz, J. Watson.  1998.  ISBN 956-7743-00-2  280 pp.  Illustrated with color drawings, covers from about 28 to 41 S latitude,  from about Copiapo to Osorno, high Andes habitats.

Flores del Norte Chico, 2a edición.
1985  By Melica Muñoz Schick.  Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, 1985  Inscription No. 62.208.  Photos and descriptions of 66 species found at the latitudes between about 27 to 35 S.

Giant Equisetum in Chile

Mostly Bolivia

ZONAS DE VEGETACIÓN POTENCIAL DE BOLIVIA: UNA BASE PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE VACÍOS DE CONSERVACIÓN Gonzalo Navarro y Wanderley Ferreira  Articulós Cientificos-Técnicos  Rev. Bol.  Ecol. 15  2004    Abstract:  The bioclimatic, geophysical, floristic, vegetation, and human land-use patterns of the entire Bolivian territory and their spatial discontinuities were superimposed and geographical discontinuities were analyzed, revealing 39 vegetation zones that we grouped into 12 general physiographic-biogeographical units. The proposed vegetation zones are briefly characterized and described and a diagnosis of their vegetation types and the characteristic floristic combinations are presented. We also present a map of the 39 proposed vegetation zones.

Preliminary Checklist of the Compositae of Bolivia  D.J. Nicholas Hind, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, February 2009.   537 pp  Annotated

Guia de Arboles de Bolivia
.  T. Killeen, E. Gargcia. E., S. Beck, editores.  1993.  Nearly 1,000 pp over trees of Bolivia.  42 page key to families.  Herbario Nacional de Bolivia and Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Arboles y Arbustos para Sistemas Agroforestales en Los Valles Interandinos de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 
Guia de Campo.  IG Vargas, A Lawrence, ME Otazu.  2000.  ISBN 99905-801-1-1.

Historía Natural de un Valle en los Andes:  La Paz
.  Eduardo Forno, Mario Baudoin. 1991. Paperback, 559 pp. Edited by Instituto de Ecología - UMSA, Casilla de Correo Central 10077, La Paz, Bolivia. Deposito Legal No. 4-1-34-91.  Ecology of a high altitude valley in Bolivia that has much in common with the precordillera and altiplano near Putre.  Good descriptions of bofedales. Bibliography. In Spanish.  A possible source for this book is 

Flora Ilustrada Altoandina , La relación entre hombre, planta, y medio ambiente en el Ayllu Majasaya Mujlli (Prov. Tapacari, Dpto Cochabamba, Bolivia: 
Pestalozzi and Torrez, 1998. ISBN 99905-48-00-5   Although written for an area of Andean Bolivia, the book contains line drawings, photos, and brief descriptions of many of the same genera and species found in the Lauca area.   In Spanish.

A Cactus Odyssey: Journeys in the wilds of Bolivia, Peru, and Argentina
by James Mauseth, Roberto Kiesling, Carlos Ostolaza, 2002. ISBN0-88192-526-8.  Informative and amusing adventures of 3 botanists looking for elusive cacti in remote areas. 

Mostly Peru

Revista Peruana de Biología. Publicación del Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

Arboles y Arbustos del Valle Sagrado de Los Incas.
  Trees and Bushes from the Sacred Valley of the Incas.  G. Cassinelli del Sante.  2000.  ISBN-9972-9172-0-7.  102 pp.  In Spanish and English. 

Rapid Color Guides page.
    On plants from Arequipa, western slope of Peru, Cuzco, etc.  Over 50 posters available for Peru, also for Mexico, USA, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, etc.  Plants, animals.

Flora y vegetación del Departamento de Tacna
(Peru)   por Juan Franco Leon et al.  

La Microcuenca del Río Kachimayu Flora y fauna de la región del Cusco.  "Ud. está visitando el registro botánico de la Asociación Pukllasunchis de la Microcuenca del Río Kachimayu, la cual se encuentra entre 3'200 y 4'000 m.s.n.m. en la región del Cusco, Perú, a una distancia de approx. 5 km de la ciudad misma".

Plantas Comunes del Cañon de Cotahuasi, Peru
Not far north of Putre, 8 posters

El libro rojo de las plantas endémicas del Perú
  Vol. 13, Nº 2,
especial, 2006

Restauración de hábitat y uso sostenible de los bosque secos del sur del Perú
  a poster, Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew

Composición florística de la cuenca del río Ilo-Moquegua y Lomas de Ilo, Moquegua, Perú
.   ARAKAKI, Mónica y CANO, Asunción    Rev. peru biol., ene./jul. 2003, vol.10

Illustrated Guide to Trees of Peru
TD Pennington, C Reynel, A Daza. Drawings by Rosemary Wise.   2004.  ISBN 0 9538134 3 6.  848 pages and chock full of keys, line diagrams, essential information. 

Diversidad Florística del Norte de Perú 
  Tomo I,  1999.  ISBN  ?  by Sagástegui, Dillon, Sánchez V., Leiva G., Lezama A.   Tomo II:  Diversidad floristica del Norte de Perú, Bosque Montanos Both of these volumes can be ordered from

Cactus and Succulent Journal
  Included lately has been information focusing on cactus of Bolivia, with  some articles  coming on cactus of the high Andes of Peru.              

is the journal of the Sociedad Peruana de Cactus y Suculentas.  Deals with cactus of Peru, and anything having to do with cactus of Peru such as art, ethnobotany, food, poetry, literature. Information from Dr. Carlos Ostolaza fax 511 476 2102. Also Quepo has a page on 

Geografía del Perú:  Las ocho regiones naturales, La regionalización transversal, La sabiduría ecológica tradicional.
by Javier Pulgar Vidal, 10th edition, 1996, PEISA.  ISBN 9972-40-027-3  Divides Peru into 8 ecological regions, and introduces each area's flora, fauna, geography, culture, climate.  In Spanish.

Conserving the Biological Diversity of the Polylepis woodlands of the highlands of Peru and Bolivia: A Contribution to Sustainable Natural Resource Management in the Andes.
  Fjeldsa and Kessler 1996.  ISBN 87-986168-0-3.   Deforestation in the high Andes. This book is important also for Chile, as several birds in northern Chile are strongly specialized to Polylepis, including the Giant Conebill, and other little-known birds in northern Chile use Polylepis seasonally  -- the Rufous-webbed Tyrant, Tamarugo Conebill, and D'orbigny's Chat Tyrant among them. In Chile, Polylepis is going fast.  Extensive bibliography.

Flora Genérica de los Páramos:  Guía Illustrada de las Plantas Vasculares  P. Sklenár, JL Luteyn, C Ulloa Ulloa, PM Jorgensen, MO Dillon.    ISBN 0-89327-468-2.  499 pp.

The Biology of Mangroves   Peter J Hogarth  1999.  ISBN 0-19-850223 Oxford University Press

Mostly Argentina

Algunas de las muchas plantas nativas de las Sierras del Tandil   (Argentina)  UNESCO download

Flores de Alta Montaña de los Andes Patagonicos   High Mountain Flowers of the Patagonia Andes
.  Marcela Ferreyra, Cecilia Ezcurra, Sonia Clayton.  2006.  In English and Spanish,  239pp.  color photos. Descriptions of 170 species of plants, maps.  Editorial LOLA

Darwiniana:  Instituto de Botánica "Darwinion" (IBODA-CONICET)


Other places, habitats, research

Malezas de México
Lots of close-up photographs.  Huge site, fine resource. 

Passiflora Online Journal

Plants of the Montane Forests: Guatemala  Ana Lucrecia de MacVean 

The Giant Horsetails, Chad Husby's site on this giant plant.  He quotes Richard Spruce in Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes  1908:  "But the most remarkable plant in the forest of Canelos is a gigantic Equisetum, 20 feet high, and the stem nearly as thick as the wrist!...It extends for a distance of a mile on a plain bordering the Pastasa, but elevated some 200 feet above it, where at every few steps one sinks over the knees in black, white, and red mud.  A wood of young larches may give you an idea of its appearance.  I have never seen anything which so much astonished me.  I could almost fancy myself in some primeval forest of Calamites , and if some gigantic Saurian had suddenly appeared, crushing its way among the succulent stems, my surprise could hardly have been increased."   

One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest
,  Wade Davis, 1996.  ISBN 0-684-80886-2  From the back cover: "In 1941, Professor Richard Evans Schultes took a leave from Harvard and disappeared into the Amazon, where he spent the next 12 years mapping uncharted rivers and living among dozens of Indian tribes.  In the 1970's he sent 2 prize students, Tim Plowman and Wade Davis, to follow in his footsteps and unveil the botanical secret of coca............. a sacred plant know to the Inca as the Divine Leaf of Immortality. A stunning account of adventure and discovery, betrayal and destruction........."  A book you'll never quite finish, to read and reread. What a story.

Alpine Plant Life:  Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems
, C. Korner.  1999.  ISBN 3-540-65438-0     The textbook for alpine plant ecology.

Un Compañero Neotropical:  Una introducción a los animales, plantas, y ecosistemas del Trópico del Nuevo Mundo
  John Kricher.  2006.  ISBN 1-878788-50-7 Editores de la versión en Español  Alvaro Jaramillo y Luis Segura.

Páramos: a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature
  James Luteyn, 1999.   ISBN 0-89327-427-5  Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Vol 84. 

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